The Latest EV Charging Standards (2022-2023)


As a newcomer to the world of electric vehicles, you might find the plethora of EV charging standards a bit overwhelming. Let's demystify these standards, crucial for every EV user globally.

Global EV Charging Standards

Today's global EV charging standards have evolved from international norms, national regulations, and automakers' preferences. EVs may have different charging connectors, so using chargers with differing specifications often requires appropriate adapters. Here's a rundown of the key charging standards you'll encounter worldwide:

J1772 (Type 1)

Developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) in the United States in 2010, J1772 is a single-phase charging standard widely adopted in North America, Japan, and Taiwan. Commonly found at public parking lots, these chargers have a 5-point connection interface. For instance, Tesla models delivered before July 2021 can use J1772 with an included adapter, while later models may require an additional adapter for compatibility.

CCS1 (Combined Charging System 1)

SAE released CCS1, a DC fast-charging standard, to reduce the size of charging connectors. Building on the J1772 standard, CCS1 adds two more terminals for DC charging, effectively minimizing the interface's size. Most EVs, except for Tesla and Nissan, come equipped with CCS1 connectors. However, Tesla currently doesn't offer a CCS1 adapter.

Type 2

Developed by Mennekes, this three-phase AC charging standard gained recognition and recommendation from the European Automobile Manufacturers' Association, thus becoming widespread in Europe. It differs from the earlier J1772 standard and requires a specific adapter for compatibility with vehicles using other charging standards.

CCS2 (Combined Charging System 2)

Similar to CCS1, CCS2 is based on the Type 2 connector with additional DC terminals. It's prevalent in Tesla models post-July 2021, which can directly use CCS2 chargers. Non-Tesla vehicles may need an appropriate adapter for CCS2 charging.


A Japanese standard capable of supporting up to 50 kW DC charging, CHAdeMO is symbolically named to represent a quick charge ('time for a tea break'). It's primarily used by Nissan and Mitsubishi, with adapters available for Tesla models delivered before July 2021.

TPC (Tesla Proprietary Connector)

Tesla, in the midst of varying charging standards, opted for its proprietary connector supporting both AC and DC charging. This standard was primarily used in North America and Japan for Tesla models delivered before July 2021.

Current State of the Charging Market

Globally, AC charging stations primarily use J1772 and TPC standards, while DC chargers mostly offer CCS1 and CHAdeMO. With the EV market's rapid growth, we're witnessing an increasing deployment of CCS2 and Type 2 chargers, challenging existing infrastructure and user adaptability.

Tips for EV Owners

  • For Teslas delivered before July 2021: A J1772 to TPC adapter is essential, and considering a CHAdeMO to TPC adapter for DC charging stations is advisable.

  • For Teslas delivered after July 2021: A J1772 to Type 2 adapter is necessary for emergencies, especially where CCS2 chargers are scarce.

Understanding these standards helps EV owners navigate the diverse charging landscape, ensuring a smooth and efficient EV experience. Stay updated and prepared for any charging scenario, no matter where your travels take you!